Online Theological Education: An Updated Working Bibliography

For a more dynamic presentation, see the Online Theological Education Zotero group. This list builds on that of Charles Bellinger, Theological Education and Distance Learning: A Working Bibliography.

Amos, K. E. (1999). Report of the Survey of Ats Schools on Educational Technology and Distance Education. Theological Education, 36, 125–140.
Anderson, B. A. (2014). Continuing to engage the online kearner: more activities and resources for creative instruction. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 277–278.
Anderson, K. M. (2007). A Case Narrative of Bethel Seminary’s InMinistry Program. Theological Education, 42(2), 67–78.
Arroyo, A. T. (2010). It’s Not a Colorless Classroom: Teaching Religion Online to Black College Students Using Transformative, Postmodern Pedagogy. Teaching Theology & Religion, 13(1), 35–50.
Ascough, R. S. (2002). Designing for Online Distance Education: Putting Pedagogy before Technology. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(1), 17–29.
Ascough, R. S. (2007). Welcoming Design – Hosting a Hospitable Online Course. Teaching Theology & Religion, 10(3), 131–136.
Atkinson, H. (1990). Theological Education by Extension : An Alternative in Education. Christian Education Journal, 10(2), 25–37.
Basney, L. (1999). The Schoolroom in the Factory : Reflections on Technology and Its Place in Seminary Education. Calvin Theological Journal, 34, 417–431.
Beaty, A. J. (2014). Exploring Educator Perceptions of Need, Sustainability, and Impact of Global Online Theological Courses. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education (IJICTE), 10(2), 14–24.
Bellinger, C. K. (2003). Distance Learning and Theological Education. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 57(1), 150–153.
Bothma, T. J. D. (1992). Hypermedia as Information Model in Studying Biblical Languages and Cultures. In Bible Et Informatique (pp. 329–350).
Bouchard, C. E. (2003). Serendipity or Grace? What Evaluation Has Taught Us about Education and Ecclesiology in Distance Learning. Theological Education, 39(2), 97–106.
Boyce, J. L., & Nysse, R. W. (1998). Technology and the Classroom. Word & World, 18, 418–421.
Brown, M. (2012). Connected minds, emerging cultures: cybercultures in online learning. Teaching Theology & Religion, 15(4), 387–388.
Browning, M. (2004). The Hermits of Distance Education: Toward a Broader Commitment to Online Learners. Christian Scholar’s Review, 33(4), 547–556.
Brunner, D. L. (2006). The Potential of the Hybrid Course Vis-à-vis Online and Traditional Courses. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(4), 229–235.
Buchanan, E. A. (1997). Virtual Theological Education : Cybertraining for Evangelization and Discipleship. Faith and Mission, 14, 28–45.
Buckley, F. J. (1999). Building Community, Real and Virtual. Horizons, 26, 253–262.
Bucknall, R. (1991). Information Technology in Schools. Journal of Christian Education, 102, 7–13.
Byer, G. C. J., Clark, J., Mahfood, S., & Welch, L. J. (2002). Generative Neo-Cyberculture in the Modern Seminary. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(2), 113–117.
Cannell, L. (1999). A Review of Literature on Distance Education. Theological Education, 36, 1–72.
Carroll, J. W. (1997). Being There : Culture and Formation in Two Theological Schools. Oxford University Press.
Conley, A. D. (2014). Option-based final projects for creative online learners. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 222–222.
Cormode, S. (1999). Using Computers in Theological Education: Rules of Thumb. Theological Education, 36, 101–116.
Cornell, C. R., & LeMon, J. M. (2016). How We Teach Introductory Bible Courses: A Comparative and Historical Sampling. Teaching Theology & Religion, 19(2), 114–142.
Cunningham, J. R. (1996). The Future of Seminary Education: Training the Laity. Review and Expositor, 93, 63–76.
Dalziel, J. (2011). Learning design, LAMS, and Christian education. International Journal of Christianity & Education, os54(1), 39–56.
Danielson, R. (2015). Navigating the online missiology classroom: class design and resources for teaching missiology online. Missiology, 43(2), 208–220.
Dart, J. (2013). Seminaries expand online options. The Christian Century, 130(20), 14–15.
Delamarter, S. (2006). Strategic Planning to Enhance Teaching and Learning with Technology. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(1), 9–23.
Delamarter, S., & Brunner, D. L. (2005). Theological Education and Hybrid Models of Distance Learning. Theological Education, 40(2), 145–164.
Delamarter, S., Gravett, S. L., Ulrich, D. W., Nysse, R. W., & Polaski, S. H. (2011). Teaching Biblical Studies Online. Teaching Theology & Religion, 14(3), 256–283.
Detar, M. D. (2015). Theological Librarianship from a Distance. Theological Librarianship, 8(2), 11–15.
Deulen, A. A. (2013). Social constructivism and online learning environments: toward a theological model for Christian educators. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 90–98.
Dewerse, R., & Nichols, M. (2011). Evaluating Transformative Learning in Theological Education: A Multifaceted Approach. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 7(1), 44–59.
Dickason, J. (1997). Library Services to Real Students from Virtual and Extension Programs : Serving the Distant Learner. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 51, 253–256.
Dominguez, A. W., McMinn, M. R., & Moon, G. W. (2009). Teaching Integration Outside the Traditional Classroom. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 37(1), 48–53.
Dukes, J., & Bourgond, G. W. (1999). Summaries of Two Experimental Distance Education Programs. Theological Education, 36, 117–124.
Eastep, A. C. (2017). At-Home Seminary: Why More and More Students Are Leaning Toward Distance Learning. Christianity Today, 61(4), 67.
Elias, J. W. (2006). From a Distance: Pastoral Care and Theological Education. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(1), 44–52.
Eliceiri, E. M. E. (2000). Nuts and Bolts of Distance Education. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 54, 33–48.
Eliceiri, R. K. (2015). Faith thinking foundations: online religious (meta)literacy education within a congregational context. Advances in the Study of Information and Religion, 5.
Esselman, T. (2004). The Pedagogy of the Online Wisdom Community: Forming Church Ministers in a Digital Age. Teaching Theology & Religion, 7(3), 159–170.
Estep, J. R. (2012). The profession of teaching Christian education. Christian Education Journal, 9(2), 342–344.
Flattery, G. (1996). Delivering Theological Education to a Global Society. Review and Expositor, 93, 55–62.
Fletcher, S., Compton, K., & Miller, R. (2014). Toward a model for consortial sharing of e-books among theological libraries. Theological Education, 48(2), 25–32.
Flynn, J. T. (2013). Digital discipleship: Christian education in a digital world. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 88–89.
Flynn, J. T. (2013). MOOCs: disruptive innovation and the future of higher education. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 149–162.
Forrest, B. K., & Lamport, M. A. (2013). Modeling spiritual formation from a distance: Paul’s formation transactions with the Roman Christians. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 110–124.
Fritschel, A. (2017). Wartburg’s Savvy Stewards Program. Currents in Theology and Mission, 44(3), 5–8.
Galli, M. (2013). Higher ed at a crossroad: why the local church should care, and what it can do. Christianity Today, 57(4), 61–61.
Glader, P. D. (2014). The unlikely innovator: two traditional Christian universities embraced Michael Clifford’s vision for online ed. The are now giants in the field. Christianity Today, 58(8), 60–64.
Goodwin, W. (1996). Serving Remote Students in Distance-Learning Programs. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 50, 25–58.
Graham, S. L. (2002). Theological Education on the Web: A Case Study in Formation for Ministry. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(4), 227–235.
Gresham, J. (2006). The Divine Pedagogy as a Model for Online Education. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(1), 24–28.
Groeling, J., & Boyd, K. A. (2009). The Impact of Distance Education on Libraries. Theological Librarianship, 2(1), 35–44.
Groeling, J., & Ruth, L. (2007). The Times, They Are A-changin’: How a Training Seminar for Online Education Changed a Seminary One Faculty Member at a Time. Theological Education, 42(2), 57–66.
Haar, S. (2008). E-constructing Theological Education for Ministry in a WWW World. Lutheran Theological Journal, 42(1), 18–29.
Hamm, S. E. (2011). Using Word Clouds for Reflection and Discussion in an Online Class. Teaching Theology & Religion, 14(2), 156–156.
Hansen, G. N. (2010). The Absent Professor: Taking the Residential Class Online. Teaching Theology & Religion, 13(4), 374–375.
Harlow, J. (2007). Successfully Teaching Biblical Languages Online at the Seminary Level: Guiding Principles of Course Design and Delivery. Teaching Theology & Religion, 10(1), 13–24.
Hatcher, R. L. (2013). Professional identity development in online Christian theological education: A case study of preparing pastoral practice through discursive activity. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Hawkins, A., Graham, C. R., Sudweeks, R. R., & Barbour, M. K. (2013). Academic performance, course completion rates, and student perception of the quality and frequency of interaction in a virtual high school. Distance Education, 34(1), 64–83.
Hawkins, T. R. (2004). From the 3Rs to the 3Ws: Continuing Education in a Digital Age. Quarterly Review, 24(2), 168–180.
Hayes, S. (2013). Migrants, mission and theological education. Missionalia, 41(1), 5–21.
Hege, B. A. R. (2011). The Online Theology Classroom: Strategies for Engaging a Community of Distance Learners in a Hybrid Model of Online Education. Teaching Theology & Religion, 14(1), 13–20.
Hess, L. M. (2014). A Begrudging, Recalcitrant Academic Observes What She’s Learning: Distance Learning in Leadership Formation. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 264–271.
Hess, M. E. (2002). Pedagogy and Theology in Cyberspace: “All That We Can’t Leave Behind …” Teaching Theology & Religion, 5, 30–38.
Hess, M. E. (2014). A new culture of learning: digital storytelling and faith formation. Dialog, 53(1), 12–22.
Hess, M. E., Gallagher, E. V., & Turpin, K. (2014). Forum: A New Culture of Learning. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 227–246.
Hockridge, D. (2011). What’s the Problem? Spiritual Formation in Distance and Online Theological Education. International Journal of Christianity & Education, os54(1), 25–38.
Hockridge, D. (2013). Challenges for educators using distance and online education to prepare students for relational professions. Distance Education, 34(2), 142–160.
Hogue, M. S. (2014). From resistance to resurrection: Meadville Lombard’s TouchPointSM model of theological education. Theological Education, 48(2), 33–41.
Howard, C. M., & Zaragoza, E. C. (2003). “Here I Am, Lord”: First Steps into Online Learning. Journal of Theology, 107, 43–56.
Hueth, A. C. (2004). E-learning and Christian Higher Education: A War of the Worlds, or Lessons in Reductionism? Christian Scholar’s Review, 33(4), 527–546.
Janzen, J. (2015). Instructor empathy and student retention in online learning environments. Direction, 44(1), 128–129.
Jones, B. F. (2014). Lights, camera, teach. The Christian Century, 131(13), 43–43.
Karaman, S., Aydemir, M., Kuçuk, S., & Yildirim, G. (2013). Virtual classroom participants’ views for effective synchronous education process. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 290–301.
Kelsey, D. H. (2002). Spiritual Machines, Personal Bodies, and God: Theological Education and Theological Anthropology. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(1), 2–9.
Kennedy, J. W. (2010). The iSeminary Cometh: Online Education Is Jolting Seminaries with Rapid Enrollment Growth. Christianity Today, 54(4), 1.
Kennel-Shank, C. (2017). Forming priests among the people. The Christian Century, 134(4), 30.
Killacky, C. (2011). Developing a Useful Teaching Delivery Selection Model for Theological Seminaries Using Technology as a Medium. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 8(2), 166–182.
Kinsler, F. R. (1999). The Viability of Theological Education by Extension Today. Ministerial Formation, 85, 5–18.
Klipowicz, S. W., & Laniak, T. (1999). Hebrew Exegesis Online : Using Information Technology to Enhance Biblical Language Study. Teaching Theology & Religion, 2, 109–115.
Knefel, M. A., Thompson, M. L., & Helmke, J. (2010). Faculty/librarian Collaboration in Creating a Research Assignment for Distance Education Students. American Theological Library Association Summary Of Proceedings, 64, 100–103.
Kuligin, V. (2007). Going the Distance: Adapting Full-time Residential Curricula into Distance Format. Evangelical Missions Quarterly, 43(3), 298–305.
Lee, Y.-L. (2013). The Technologizing of Faith: An Ethnographic Study of Christian University Students Using Online Technology. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 125–138.
Lester, G. B. (2014). “Essential questions” Twitter chats. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 224–224.
Lockhart, E. B. (2012). Online theological pedagogy: The influence of dialogue on spiritual formation in the online theological classroom. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Loewen, N. (2016). Whose place is this anyway?: reflecting upon hospitality and higher education. Teaching Theology & Religion, 19(1), 4–19.
Lowe, S. D., & Lowe, M. E. (2010). Spiritual Formation in Theological Distance Education: An Ecosystems Model. Christian Education Journal, 7(1), 85–102.
Lucker, J. K. (1997). How Do Changing Needs Shape Future Library Space : Graduate Theological Education, Information Technology and Library Space Planning. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 51, 227–229.
MacDonald, G. J. (2013). Churches turn to part-time clergy. The Christian Century, 130(21), 14–15.
Maddix, M. A. (2012). Generating and facilitating effective online learning through discussion. Christian Education Journal, 9(2), 372–385.
Maddix, M. A. (2013a). Developing online learning communities. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 139–148.
Maddix, M. A. (2013b). E-learning in the 21st century: a selected top ten book reviews since 2001. Christian Education Journal, 10(1), 163–179.
Maddix, M. A., & Estep, J. R. (2010). Spiritual Formation in Online Higher Education Communities: Nurturing Spirituality in Christian Higher Education Online Degree Programs. Christian Education Journal, 7(2), 423–434.
Mainwaring, S. J. (2015). Place, Power, and People in Twenty-first Century Theological Education. Anglican Theological Review, 97(1), 91.
Marangos, F. (2003). The Internet and Distance Learning: Plumbing the Well of Cyberspace for Religious Education. Greek Orthodox Theological Review, 48(1–4), 241–270.
Markette, J. A. A. F. (2012). A quasi-experimental study of religiosity of undergraduate students enrolled in an online Christian worldview course. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Marshall, J. W., Hisrich, M., & Pinzino, J. M. (2014). A changed game, and changing the game: adapting to new realities and innovating new solutions. Theological Education, 48(2), 15–24.
Martin, E. (2014). The brain game: teaching strategies for introverted vs. extroverted students. Bulletin for the Study of Religion, 43(3), 39–46.
Martz, D. A. (1998). Seminary Reform : A Blueprint for Revisioning. Sewanee Theological Review, 41, 357–366.
McGarrah Sharp, M., & Morris, M. A. (2014). Virtual Empathy? Anxieties and Connections Teaching and Learning Pastoral Care Online. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(3), 247–263.
McGuire, B. (2017). Principles for Effective Asynchronous Online Instruction in Religious Studies. Teaching Theology & Religion, 20(1), 28–45.
Mercadante, L. (2002). High Tech or High Touch: Will Technology Help or Hurt Our Teaching? Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(1), 56–58.
Mercer, R. L. J., & Simpson, M. (2015). What would Kant tweet?: the utilization of online technology in courses involving formation, meaning, and value. Theological Education, 49(2), 1–18.
Meyer, D. A. (2014). A gospel-based budgeting of theology’s resources. Concordia Journal, 40(2), 95–98.
Miller, R. (2011). Best practices in online education. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 65, 113–121.
Miller, S., & Scharen, C. (2015). Paying for seminary. The Christian Century, 132(4), 11.
Mueller, A. W. (1997). Library Services to Real Students from Virtual and Extension Programs. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 51, 257–261.
Muether, J. R. (1997). Library Services to Real Students from Virtual and Extension Programs : “Keeping Faith with the Old Library.” American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 51, 263–266.
Nam, R. S. (2009). Online Theological Education: Perspectives from First-generation Asian American Students. Theological Education, 45(1), 59–69.
Newman, B. (2013). The Contemplative Classroom, or Learning by Heart in the Age of Google. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 33(1), 3–11.
Nichols, M. (2011). The Akadameia as Paradigm for Online Community in Theological Distance Education. International Journal of Christianity & Education, os54(1), 5–23.
Nichols, M. (2015). A Comparison of the Spiritual Participation of On-Campus and Theological Distance Education Students. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 12(2), 121–136.
Nichols, M. (2016). The formational experiences of on-campus and theological distance education students. Journal of Adult Theological Education, 13(1), 18–32.
Nixon, D. J. (2016). New directions in my priestly ministry: More becoming. Theology, 119(6), 435–442.
Nyitray, V. L. (2001). Distance Learning: Proceed with Caution. Council of Societies for the Study of Religion Bulletin, 30(4), 85–87.
O’Keefe, J. J. (1996). The Virtual Classroom : Using an Electronic Discussion Group to Teach Theology. Horizons, 23(2), 296–305.
O’Leary, S. D. (1996). Cyberspace as Sacred Space : Communicating Religion on Computer Networks. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 64(4), 781–808.
Osei-Bonsu, R., & Dei, D. (2015). Theological training for effective pastoral ministry: a collaborative approach. Trinity Journal of Church and Theology, 18(4), 103–120.
Patterson, E. (1996). The Questions of Distance Education. Theological Education, 33(1), 59–74.
Pauw, A. P. (2002). Discoveries and Dangers in Teaching Theology with PowerPoint. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(1), 39–41.
Penner, K. (2009). Information Needs and Behaviours of Theology Students at the International Baptist Theological Seminary. Theological Librarianship, 2(2), 51–80.
Peterson, A. J. (2015). Big data for faculty development in research and teaching. Theological Education, 49(2), 75–87.
Pfeiffer, C. (2011). The contour methodology: teaching the Bible in the digital age. Conversations with the Biblical World, 31, 204.
Pruitt, R. A. (2011). The application of cognitive-developmental or mediated cognitive learning strategies in online college coursework. Teaching Theology & Religion, 14(3), 226–246.
Rasmussen, J. (2011). Online instruction: reflections of a rookie instructor. International Journal of Christianity & Education, os54(1), 64–68.
Raybon, S. P. (2012). An evaluation of best practices in online continuing theological education. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Reissner, A. (1999). An Examination of Formational and Transformational Issues in Conducting Distance Learning. Theological Education, 36(1), 87–100.
Roberts, S. K. (1999). A Survey of Accrediting Agency Standards and Guidelines for Distance Education. Theological Education, 36(1), 73–86.
Rodrick-Schnaath, H., & Lose, D. J. (2017). Responding to the Economic Challenges Facing Future Ministers at the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Philadelphia. Currents in Theology and Mission, 44(3), 18–21.
Roels, S. J. (2004). Global discipleship and online learning: what does blackboard have to do with Jerusalem? Christian Scholar’s Review, 33(4), 451–470.
Rooms, N. (2014). Theological education in a new missional era: a personal journey with seven theses. Dialog, 53(4), 336–344.
Rovai, A. P., & Baker, J. D. (2004). Sense of Community: A Comparison of Students Attending Christian and Secular Universities in Traditional and Distance Education Programs. Christian Scholar’s Review, 33(4), 471–489.
Royalty, R. M. (2002). Ancient Christianity in Cyberspace: A Digital Media Lab for Students. Teaching Theology & Religion, 5(1), 42–48.
Ruth, L. (2006). Converting My course Converted Me: How Reinventing an On-campus Course for an Online Environment Reinvigorated My Teaching. Teaching Theology & Religion, 9(4), 236–242.
Sangha, L. (2016). Old Technologies, New Approaches: How Can Material Culture Take Students Beyond the Text? The Sixteenth Century Journal, 47(4), 978–981.
Satyanarayana, P., & Meduri, E. D. K. (2013). Use of distance education by christian religion to train, edify and educate adherents. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 35–43.
Schachter, L. (1998). Videoconferencing and Jewish Education : Paradox and Promise. Beer-Sheva : Ben-Gurion Univ of the Negev Press. In Judaism and Education (pp. 377–392). Beer-Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.
Selwyn, J. D. (2015). Adventures in experiential education: online teaching and learning. The Sixteenth Century Journal, 46(4), 1019–1022.
Semenye, L. (2013). Trends in Christian education in East Africa. Christian Education Journal, 10(2), S73–S79.
Shore, M. H. (2007). Establishing Social Presence in Online Courses: Why and How. Theological Education, 42(2), 91–100.
Smith, L. C. (1999). The Academic Library’s Role in Distance Education. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 53, 125–132.
Spencer, J. (2012). An 8-week online capstone experience. Teaching Theology & Religion, 15(2), 184–185.
Spencer, J. (2015). Online education and curricular design. Theological Education, 49(2), 19–31.
Steffan, M. (2012). Discipling the masses: Christian colleges try massive online courses. Christianity Today, 56(9), 15–16.
Strawn, B. A., Alanís, J., Haitch, R., Hoffman, M. V., & Jones, A. W. (2007). Technology, Pedagogy, and Transformation in Theological Education: Five Case Studies. Teaching Theology & Religion, 10(2), 64–79.
Tait, J. W., Berryhill, C., Badke, W., Endicott, J., & Hicks, J. M. (2010). Pray, Work, Study, Log On: Can Libraries Be a Common Ground in Online Theological Education? American Theological Library Association Summary Of Proceedings, 64(1), 54–61.
Thistlethwaite, S. B. (1995). Virtual Reality Christianity. Theology Today, 52(2), 225–235.
Thompson, M., & MacLeod, M. (2015). To the ends of the earth: cultural considerations for global online theological education. Theological Education, 49(2), 113–125.
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Tonkin, S. E. (2004). The Christian Ethos and E-learning. Christian Scholar’s Review, 33(4), 557–568.
Torma, R. (2012). Mobile learning for congregations. Word & World, 32(3), 267–276.
Twelves, J., & Arasaratnam, L. A. (2012). Blended learning in postgraduate studies: a contextualised discussion. International Journal of Christianity & Education, os55(1), 59–69.
Veldheer, K. J. (2011). Reference without borders: best practices for providing reference to distance students. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 65, 220–222.
Walker, K. (1996). Virtual Education: Cyber Seminaries Are Wiring for Long-Distance Learning. Christianity Today, 5, 110–111.
Walton, R. (1997). New Wineskins? Distance Education and Computer Conferencing. British Journal of Theological Education, 9(2), 38–48.
White, R. (2006). Promoting Spiritual Formation in Distance Education. Christian Education Journal, 3(2), 303–315.
Wiens, T. L. (2014). Educating clergy online: A pedagogical map to guide and assess spiritual integration. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Williams, R. B. (2001). Getting Technical: Information Technology in Seminaries. Christian Century, 7, 14–17.
Williamson, R. (2013). Using Twitter to teach reader‐oriented biblical interpretation: “Tweading” the Gospel of Mark. Teaching Theology & Religion, 16(3), 274–286.
Womack, A. (1996). Technology in the Classroom: Multimedia and Theological Education. American Theological Library Association Summary of Proceedings, 50, 243–263.
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